stillmeaningless:

flowerette:

how is this even possible

it’s probably a baby key deer! they’re very tiny and good and they are also in trouble because people keep killing them by mistake! they live in the florida keys and they’re hard to spot but if you know where to look they’re really sweet and beautiful
look at this baby

stillmeaningless:

flowerette:

how is this even possible

it’s probably a baby key deer! they’re very tiny and good and they are also in trouble because people keep killing them by mistake! they live in the florida keys and they’re hard to spot but if you know where to look they’re really sweet and beautiful

look at this baby

thatdudeemu:

youbetternotbringyokids:

h0odrich:

white people willingly refrain from throwing around ‘voldemort’ but start a earthquake when they’re told ‘n-gga’ isn’t for them

White people won’t say Beetlejuice 3 times but say “nigga” like it ain’t nothing

White people scared to say Bloody Mary, but will look at a black person with no fear and say nigga

fahbulus:

sleep is for the people without internet access

Reblogged from xixi.
thatscienceguy:

The Electric Eel (Electrophorus electricus) is truly a wonder of the animal kingdom, and an amazing work of millions of years of evolution.
Despite its name it is in no way closely related to eels, it is a member of the Knifefish family and is the only member of its genus. The electric eel lives in fresh water in the Amazon, as well as other river basins in south america. They can grow to about 2m in length (6 and a half feet) weighing 20 kg. It can produce an electric shock of up to 600 Volts!
It produces this shock using 3 organs, the Main organ, the Hunters organ, and the Sachs organ. The total size of these 3 organs make up an amazing four fifths of the eels body! The organs are made of electrocytes, and are lined up so that a current can be passed from one organ to the next. When the eel wants to produce a shock it opens up glands in and between the organs allowing sodium ions to flow between them, creating a sudden change in potential difference (voltage.)
The shock only lasts approximately 0.2 milliseconds meaning it is not very likely to be lethal to an adult human despite it being 600 volts. That being said, it has been known to kill if the shock is, for example, directed towards the heart. 

thatscienceguy:

The Electric Eel (Electrophorus electricus) is truly a wonder of the animal kingdom, and an amazing work of millions of years of evolution.

Despite its name it is in no way closely related to eels, it is a member of the Knifefish family and is the only member of its genus. The electric eel lives in fresh water in the Amazon, as well as other river basins in south america. They can grow to about 2m in length (6 and a half feet) weighing 20 kg. It can produce an electric shock of up to 600 Volts!

It produces this shock using 3 organs, the Main organ, the Hunters organ, and the Sachs organ. The total size of these 3 organs make up an amazing four fifths of the eels body! The organs are made of electrocytes, and are lined up so that a current can be passed from one organ to the next. When the eel wants to produce a shock it opens up glands in and between the organs allowing sodium ions to flow between them, creating a sudden change in potential difference (voltage.)

The shock only lasts approximately 0.2 milliseconds meaning it is not very likely to be lethal to an adult human despite it being 600 volts. That being said, it has been known to kill if the shock is, for example, directed towards the heart. 

Reblogged from That Science Guy

2damnfeisty:

note-a-bear:

babycakesbriauna:

belindapendragon:

beybad:

A Conversation with Chimamanda Adichie and Zadie Smith

Preach…

Truth

well damn son

I didn’t think I could like and respect her more than I already do.

Reblogged from You fight like a boy.
biochemistries:

HIV antiretrovirals as drugs of abuse
From around 2008, an unusual new street drug has been appearing in South Africa, containing HIV antiretroviral (ARV) efavirenz. Reports have described robberies of both clinics and HIV patients, often by those high on the drug intending to sell them on to the ‘cooks’.
Vice magazine reporter Hamilton Morris has been investigating various drugs for the publication, and in this installment covered whoonga, or nyaope as it’s also known in the country. I don’t have a lot of time for videos concerning psychedelic states, and at times his breathless reverence for drugs is grating. In fairness to Morris however, he is one of a minority of scientifically literate reporters in media today, and in this case the topic is an obscure and interesting one which would be unlikely to receive such an in-depth analysis in other mainstream media outlets.
Morris visited pharmacologist John Schetz at the University of North Texas, and analysed the drug under ‘simulated smoking’ (essentially condensing the combustion products for characterisation, though this brief section of the film went easy on the detail).
Eagle-eyed chemists might have noticed that the diagram above shows a bit of a non-event (the molecules on either side of the top arrow are identical). Like I say, the chemistry side was lacking. This flashed up for a few seconds, and a brief mention that it’s not known how the biological effects of this molecule may differ when smoked from the regular, ingested ARV.

Also covered are behavioural experiments in mice, which seemed quite rudimentary, though I’m not so strong on pharmacology so can’t exactly suggest any better trials. Mice conditioned to react differently to LSD (pressing one lever rather than the other which would be used for saline) were given efavirenz and acted similarly to those administered LSD — taken to mean that efavirenz was a psychedelic. The presence of a ‘head twitch response' in such mice provided further evidence for the hypothesis.
In Neuropsychopharmacology last year, a group led by Schetz published the work, affirming that The HIV Antiretroviral Drug Efavirenz has LSD-Like Properties. They cited anecdotal reports relating to both “HIV patients and non-infected teens who crush the pills and smoke the powder for its psychoactive effects”. 

Molecular profiling of the receptor pharmacology of efavirenz pinpointed interactions with multiple established sites of action for other known drugs of abuse including catecholamine and indolamine transporters, and GABAA and 5-HT2A receptors. In rodents, interaction with the 5-HT2A receptor, a primary site of action of lysergic acid diethylamine (LSD), appears to dominate efavirenz’s behavioral profile. Both LSD and efavirenz reduce ambulation in a novel open-field environment. Efavirenz occasions drug-lever responding in rats discriminating LSD from saline, and this effect is abolished by selective blockade of the 5-HT2A receptor. Similar to LSD, efavirenz induces head-twitch responses in wild-type, but not in 5-HT2A-knockout, mice. Despite having GABAA-potentiating effects (like benzodiazepines and barbiturates), and interactions with dopamine transporter, serotonin transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (like cocaine and methamphetamine), efavirenz fails to maintain responding in rats that self-administer cocaine, and it fails to produce a conditioned place preference. Although its molecular pharmacology is multifarious, efavirenz’s prevailing behavioral effect in rodents is consistent with LSD-like activity mediated via the 5-HT2A receptor. This finding correlates, in part, with the subjective experiences in humans who abuse efavirenz and with specific dose-dependent adverse neuropsychiatric events, such as hallucinations and night terrors, reported by HIV patients taking it as a medication.

Antiretrovirals I’ve read about all have quite frightening side-effects (myo- and neuropathy), and one that messes with the patient’s mind must only compound a patient’s problems. The authors note a study some 15 years ago which described HIV patients recovering from drug abuse having experienced ‘flashbacks’ on efavirenz, and side-effects ranging from vivid dreaming to psychosis as part of a HIV treatment regimen.
What’s worse, there have been reports that the activity is leading to entirely preventable ‘pretreatment immunity’ — with 7 to 8% of HIV-positive individuals presenting for ART with resistance.

Diversion of antiretroviral drugs, in addition to affecting adherence, reduces drug supply and limits access to treatment. Criminal behaviour related to diversion of antiretroviral drugs endangers patients and health-care providers and deters people from getting tested or seeking treatment. Finally, the recreational use of antiretroviral drugs further stigmatises HIV-infected patients and their communities and could undermine donor willingness to fund antiretroviral drug treatment.
In addition to these effects, when untreated HIV-infected people are exposed to antiretroviral drugs recreationally, they are at risk for acquiring resistance. Mutations that confer resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) such as efavirenz are among the most common in people with pretreatment resistance. Antiretroviral drugs including efavirenz have been detected in serum samples from some HIV-infected individuals with pretreatment resistance who deny a history of treatment.

The only 2 papers regarding the drug by its street name come from a group led by David Grelotti, epidemiologist and MD at the Harvard School of Public Health, a brief report published December 2013 based on interviews, and a longer paper this year:

Efavirenz is a NNRTI used in first-line treatment of HIV in South Africa. In the context of high HIV prevalence (including estimates that 24.7 % of 15–49 year-olds in KwaZulu-Natal are infected with HIV), recreational use of ARVs may expose untreated HIV-infected individuals to ARVs and promote ARV resistance.
…respondents reported that whoonga is prepared with household cleaning products and rat poison and that whoonga may be mixed with dagga (marijuana).
Any resistance to efavirenz would likely also confer resistance to other NNRTIs because of cross-class resistance risks. Because NNRTIs are the mainstay of HIV treatment regimens in South Africa, any behavior linked to increased NNRTI resistance may compromise treatment response and must be taken quite seriously.

Watch Morris’s film ‘Getting High on HIV Medication’ here, and read his blog here, which covers a little more chemistry than his films

biochemistries:

HIV antiretrovirals as drugs of abuse

From around 2008, an unusual new street drug has been appearing in South Africa, containing HIV antiretroviral (ARV) efavirenz. Reports have described robberies of both clinics and HIV patients, often by those high on the drug intending to sell them on to the ‘cooks’.

Vice magazine reporter Hamilton Morris has been investigating various drugs for the publication, and in this installment covered whoonga, or nyaope as it’s also known in the country. I don’t have a lot of time for videos concerning psychedelic states, and at times his breathless reverence for drugs is grating. In fairness to Morris however, he is one of a minority of scientifically literate reporters in media today, and in this case the topic is an obscure and interesting one which would be unlikely to receive such an in-depth analysis in other mainstream media outlets.

Morris visited pharmacologist John Schetz at the University of North Texas, and analysed the drug under ‘simulated smoking’ (essentially condensing the combustion products for characterisation, though this brief section of the film went easy on the detail).

Eagle-eyed chemists might have noticed that the diagram above shows a bit of a non-event (the molecules on either side of the top arrow are identical). Like I say, the chemistry side was lacking. This flashed up for a few seconds, and a brief mention that it’s not known how the biological effects of this molecule may differ when smoked from the regular, ingested ARV.

image

Also covered are behavioural experiments in mice, which seemed quite rudimentary, though I’m not so strong on pharmacology so can’t exactly suggest any better trials. Mice conditioned to react differently to LSD (pressing one lever rather than the other which would be used for saline) were given efavirenz and acted similarly to those administered LSD — taken to mean that efavirenz was a psychedelic. The presence of a ‘head twitch response' in such mice provided further evidence for the hypothesis.

In Neuropsychopharmacology last year, a group led by Schetz published the work, affirming that The HIV Antiretroviral Drug Efavirenz has LSD-Like Properties. They cited anecdotal reports relating to both “HIV patients and non-infected teens who crush the pills and smoke the powder for its psychoactive effects”. 

Molecular profiling of the receptor pharmacology of efavirenz pinpointed interactions with multiple established sites of action for other known drugs of abuse including catecholamine and indolamine transporters, and GABAA and 5-HT2A receptors. In rodents, interaction with the 5-HT2A receptor, a primary site of action of lysergic acid diethylamine (LSD), appears to dominate efavirenz’s behavioral profile. Both LSD and efavirenz reduce ambulation in a novel open-field environment. Efavirenz occasions drug-lever responding in rats discriminating LSD from saline, and this effect is abolished by selective blockade of the 5-HT2A receptor. Similar to LSD, efavirenz induces head-twitch responses in wild-type, but not in 5-HT2A-knockout, mice. Despite having GABAA-potentiating effects (like benzodiazepines and barbiturates), and interactions with dopamine transporter, serotonin transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (like cocaine and methamphetamine), efavirenz fails to maintain responding in rats that self-administer cocaine, and it fails to produce a conditioned place preference. Although its molecular pharmacology is multifarious, efavirenz’s prevailing behavioral effect in rodents is consistent with LSD-like activity mediated via the 5-HT2A receptor. This finding correlates, in part, with the subjective experiences in humans who abuse efavirenz and with specific dose-dependent adverse neuropsychiatric events, such as hallucinations and night terrors, reported by HIV patients taking it as a medication.

Antiretrovirals I’ve read about all have quite frightening side-effects (myo- and neuropathy), and one that messes with the patient’s mind must only compound a patient’s problems. The authors note a study some 15 years ago which described HIV patients recovering from drug abuse having experienced ‘flashbacks’ on efavirenz, and side-effects ranging from vivid dreaming to psychosis as part of a HIV treatment regimen.

What’s worse, there have been reports that the activity is leading to entirely preventable ‘pretreatment immunity’ — with 7 to 8% of HIV-positive individuals presenting for ART with resistance.

Diversion of antiretroviral drugs, in addition to affecting adherence, reduces drug supply and limits access to treatment. Criminal behaviour related to diversion of antiretroviral drugs endangers patients and health-care providers and deters people from getting tested or seeking treatment. Finally, the recreational use of antiretroviral drugs further stigmatises HIV-infected patients and their communities and could undermine donor willingness to fund antiretroviral drug treatment.

In addition to these effects, when untreated HIV-infected people are exposed to antiretroviral drugs recreationally, they are at risk for acquiring resistance. Mutations that confer resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) such as efavirenz are among the most common in people with pretreatment resistance. Antiretroviral drugs including efavirenz have been detected in serum samples from some HIV-infected individuals with pretreatment resistance who deny a history of treatment.

The only 2 papers regarding the drug by its street name come from a group led by David Grelotti, epidemiologist and MD at the Harvard School of Public Health, a brief report published December 2013 based on interviews, and a longer paper this year:

Efavirenz is a NNRTI used in first-line treatment of HIV in South Africa. In the context of high HIV prevalence (including estimates that 24.7 % of 15–49 year-olds in KwaZulu-Natal are infected with HIV), recreational use of ARVs may expose untreated HIV-infected individuals to ARVs and promote ARV resistance.

…respondents reported that whoonga is prepared with household cleaning products and rat poison and that whoonga may be mixed with dagga (marijuana).

Any resistance to efavirenz would likely also confer resistance to other NNRTIs because of cross-class resistance risks. Because NNRTIs are the mainstay of HIV treatment regimens in South Africa, any behavior linked to increased NNRTI resistance may compromise treatment response and must be taken quite seriously.

Watch Morris’s film ‘Getting High on HIV Medication’ here, and read his blog here, which covers a little more chemistry than his films

Reblogged from biochemistries

Ron and Harry’s imaginary predictions for their Star charts in Divination which actually happen during their fourth year. - Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (Page 196)

thefingerfuckingfemalefury:

be-blackstar:

This is how you handle getting your privileged called out. 

Not “reverse racism!” Not “heterophobe!” and all those other dynamics that don’t exist. Just recognition. Recognition of privilege (and hopefully continuous self-checking) 

^ THIS

Reblogged from EyeLovePi

soloses:

the a in lgbtqa should stand for allies, they deserve the recognition for defeating the axis powers and winning world war 2